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Eritrean independence, Asmera, Asmara, Red Sea, independent state

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Eritrea, independent state in Africa, bounded on the east by the Red Sea, on the southeast by Djibouti, on the south and west by Ethiopia, and on the north and northwest by Sudan. Formerly under Italian and British control, Eritrea was taken over by Ethiopia in 1952, provoking a long war of liberation that culminated in Eritrean independence in 1993. Asmara (Asmera) is Eritrea’s capital and largest city.



Fegley, Randall. Eritrea. ABC-CLIO, 1995. An introduction to the geography, modern history, people, religion, and contemporary politics of Eritrea.

Pateman, Roy. Eritrea: Even the Stones are Burning. Rev. ed. Red Sea, 1998. Looks at the Eritreans' responses to Ethiopian occupation of their land and the origins of the war.

Yohannes, Okbazghi. Eritrea: A Pawn in World Politics. University Press of Florida, 1991. How Ethiopia and Western powers blocked Eritrea's independence and contributed to a long and costly civil war.


Maxon, Robert M., B.A., Ph.D. Professor of History, West Virginia University. Author of East Africa: An Introductory History and other books.

Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation.

Article key phrases:

Eritrean independence, Asmera, Asmara, Red Sea, independent state, largest city, Djibouti, capital, Ethiopia, Sudan, Africa, west, east

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